Batteries, power electronics, renewable energy systems, energy harvesting, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, more electric aircraft, more data-centers, pyroelectric systems, solar PV converters and other smart grid technologies

ISR research has contributed to advances in batteries, including a tobacco mosaic virus scaffold battery with high surface area and capacity, high-powered nanostructured 3D microbatteries, and carbon nanotube current collectors for aqueous battery systems. Wireless devices that operate with energy harvested from the environment have been created, and advances have been made in power electronics that convert electricity from one form to another for more electric aircraft, electric vehicles and solar power.

Recent ISR energy publications


Solving Binary-Constrained Mixed Complementarity Problems using Continuous Reformulations

Steven A. Gabriel, Marina Leal, Martin Schmidt

This work presents different continuous reformulations of the binary constrained mixed complementarity problem, common in many real-world engineering-economic systems such as energy markets, transportation networks, or supply chains. The main idea is to obtain purely continuous reformulations so that local NLP solvers can be applied that are usually faster compared to mixed-integer solvers.


Using Cluster Analysis and Dynamic Programming for Demand Response Applied to Electricity Load in Residential Homes

Pattanun Chanpiwat , Steven A. Gabriel , Rachel L. Moglen , Michael J. Siemann

A practical means to analyze and cluster residential households into homogeneous groups based on electricity load, a top priority for retail electric providers so that they can effectively plan and conduct demand response.

ASME Journal of Engineering for Sustainable Buildings and Cities


Li-Containing Organic Thin Film: Structure of Lithium Propane Dioxide via Molecular Layer Deposition

Haotian Wang, Keith E. Gregorczyk, Sang Bok Lee, Gary W. Rubloff, Chuan-Fu Lin

In combining organometallic with organic precursors, molecular layer deposition (MLD) offers not only an expanded portfolio of molecular combinations but specifically the possibility of tuning mechanical properties for more robust functionality. This is appealing for applications in energy storage, where ion transport in and out of electrodes causes significant stress/strain cycling. It is particularly opportune for Li ion solid state batteries (LISSBs), where electrode and solid electrolyte structures are usually arranged densely for high power and energy. Despite diverse MLD applications to date, little prior research has been aimed at Li-containing MLD materials and processes. This work demonstrates the synthesis of a Li-containing organic thin film using organic-inorganic MLD reaction between LiOtBu and PD.

The Journal of Physical Chemistry C


Tuning Interfacial Processes in Mn-Based Li-Ion Systems through Vapor Phase Modification

Angelique Jarry, Emily Hitz, Jake Ballard, Carine L Margez, Joong Sun Park, Thomas A Greszler, Chuan-Fu Lin, Gary W. Rubloff

Among the different rechargeable battery technologies available, Co/Ni/Mn-based Li-ion systems appear to be a leading contender for automotive applications as a result of their high specific energy. However, the high operating potential of this system is outside the thermodynamic stability window of standard organic carbonate-based electrolytes. This results in electrolyte oxidation with transition metal dissolution and gas formation at the electrode/electrolyte interface during cycling, which leads to severe loss of electrochemical performance. To address these challenges, many strategies are currently being investigated, ranging from the development of new electrodes and electrolytes to the improvement of commercial Li-ion systems by surface engineering of the interfaces.

In this work, we mitigate parasitic interfacial processes in start/stop batteries by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We develop an Al2O3 or LiPON conformal artificial SEI layer on LMO and LTO electrodes and study its effect on the Li-ion batteries failure modes with differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy (DEMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and ICP measurements. The beneficial impact of the protection layer on the kinetics of the gassing, metal dissolution and associated chemical cross-talk was clearly identified. The presence of a protection layer at the LMO surface, in particular of a 10 nm LiPON conformal layer, mitigate the electrolyte oxidation at high voltage at 60°C with a significant reduction of the amount of H2 produced. The formation of metal complexes and subsequent poisoning of the SEI is also attenuated. Interestingly, counter intuitively, the ratio of the inorganic to organic components of the SEI is lowered by the presence of an inorganic protection layer. The correlation between the nature of the electrode protection layer, the electrode's surface activity, and associated organic electrolyte oxidation pathways will be presented and discussed.

Electrochemical Society Meeting Abstracts


Cascaded Structural Luneburg Lens for Broadband Cloaking and Wave Guiding

Liuxian Zhao, Miao Yu

The paper explores the concept of a structural Luneburg Lens as a design framework for performing dynamic structural tailoring to obtain a structural wave cloak and a structural waveguide.

Multi-Functional Variable Thickness Structure for Broadband and Omnidirectional Focusing and Collimation

Liuxian Zhao, Changquan Lai, Miao Yu

The paper proposes an alternative structural Luneburg lens with a refractive index that varies smoothly with its radial distance as a result of a changing thickness. This simple lens design enables a continuous gradient of refractive index, which allows flexural wave propagation to be manipulated and overcomes limitations in existing wave manipulation devices.