[ Project 1 ] : Compliance of P-3C Orion Patrol Aircraft for emerging Global Air Traffic Management Agreements (GATMs)
[ Project 2 ] : A Systems Approach for Missile and Air Defense of an Area
[ Project 3 ] : Transport and Traveler Information Systems
[ Project 4 ] : Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)
[ Project 5 ] : Requirements Development in Scenario Modeling for Civil Engineering Systems
[ Project 6 ] : Outbreaks of Food Pathogens
[ Project 7 ] : Satellite Constellation Operations System Profile
[ Project 8 ] : Marine Navigation Systems in Narrow Channels
[ Project 9 ] : A System Level Approach to the Development of a Manufacturing Test Strategy for Electronic Products
[ Project 10 ] : Agile Virtual Enterprises
[ Project 11 ] : Systems Engineering in the MEMS industry
[ Project 12 ] : Systems Approach to Design and Control of Space Satellite for Vegetation Purposes
[ Project 13 ] : Implementing An Advanced Technology (CTAS) In Air Traffic Control Industry
[ Project 14 ] : Implementation and Integration of Business Systems
[ Project 15 ] : A Systems Engineering Approach to Cab Design Optimization
[ Project 16 ] : Internet Security and Data Encryption Systems
[ Project 17 ] : Selection of an Optimal Design Layout for a facility
[ Project 18 ] : A holistic view of a Communication System using Groupware Software
[ Project 19 ] : Technology and System Architectures for Locating Wireless Phones
[ Project 20 ] : Public Transportation Systems for Large-Scale Metropoliton Areas
[ Project 21 ] : Systems Engineering Approach applied to the Design of a Pasteurization System for Juices
[ Project 22 ] : A Systems Approach to Electronic Packaging
[ Project 23 ] : VIRGINIA Class Submarine Hydraulic System Design
[ Project 24 ] : How Resources Influence Math Education Performance


Title : Compliance of P-3C Orion Patrol Aircraft for emerging Global Air Traffic Management Agreements (GATMs).
Author: George Adams

Abstract : I support the P-3C Deputy Program Manager for Systems Engineering (AKA Class Desk). The P-3C is a 4 engine maritime surveillance aircraft, primary missions are Anti-Surface Warfare, Anti-Submarine Warfare, Battle Group Support, Mining, and Search and Rescue. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the focus of these mission has shifted from Blue Water operations to the littoral (Brown Water) operations. Part of the aircraft's flexibility has been its ability to operate anywhere in the world making maximum utilization of Civil Air Space.

The focus of Air Traffic Control is changing from control to management with the expectation of "Free flight" around 2010. Compliance with the requirements is being phased in over the next ten years. The best description of the plan to get to the 2010 configuration is "We know where we are at today and we know where we want to be in 2010. Everything in between is the big question." The requirements are generally referred to as GATMs or CNS/ATM (Communication, Surveillance, Navigation/Air Traffic Management). The requirements are published by the Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs). State owned aircraft are exempt from compliance in that they do not require an airworthiness certificate from CAAs while civil aircraft must be certified GATM compliant before the CAAs will issue a airworthiness Certificate. The kicker is that Air Traffic Services may deny/delay the flight plans filed by state owned aircraft if they are not GATM compliant - a major operational impact.

We are currently ramping up to make modifications to the P-3C to bring it into compliance with the appropriate portions of the GATMs. Since the P-3C is not a passenger carrying aircraft nor do we fly above certain altitudes it is not necessary to comply with those portions of the GATMS. There are several challenges associated with this:

  1. The P-3C's interior architecture is an analog/closed system while the CNS/ATM requires a digital/open architecture.

  2. One program office (PMA-209, Common Avionics) is responsible for design and procurement of CNS/ATM compliant Weapon Replaceable Assemblies (Boxes) except for GPS, a second and joint program office (PMW/PMA-187, GPS) is responsible for the design and procurement of GPS systems, and third program office (PMA-290, Maritime Surveillance Aircraft) is responsible for the integration of these systems on the P-3C as well as derivative aircraft.

  3. Each of the above program managers is subject to the funding priorities established at the DOD level by their respective Requirements Officers (ROs). RO establish funding priorities for programs based upon inputs received from fleet commanders as impacted by politics.

  4. Multiple (many) modifications to the aircraft will adversely affect aircraft availability.

  5. While the P-3C is relatively large, we cannot afford to install one suite of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance equipment to meet the civil requirements and another to meet military/tactical requirements.

  6. CNS/ATM equipage may be different depending upon what geographic area of the world your in, Pacific, North Atlantic, Europe or North America.

  7. Only the near to mid-term requirements have been specified, many of those beyond 5 years are still in development.

  8. Differences in implementation schemes and priorities between the various CAAs (e.g., FAA vs. ICAO).

External threats are the as yet undefined future requirements, CAAs, and the political whims of Capitol Hill. I propose to apply a SE approach to this to effect Team Building among the different PMAs, establish joint funding priorities, provide an integrated approach to install an open architecture, meet current requirements and provide growth path for future requirements and, minimize impact to the operational forces.


Title : A Systems Approach for Missile and Air Defense of an Area
Authors: Angelo Battiston and Brad Grimes .

Abstract : This system profile describes the analysis procedures involved in designing a system of systems to defend a given area. The domain is the defended area and the components in this system are the various defensive elements and assets. The defensive elements may come from different countries and the assets may have varying priorities but the goal of missile defense is always the same. That goal is to maximize the ability of a given set of component defensive systems to negate threatening objects. Usually, one runs a series of simulations to optimize a defensive architecture. These simulations vary in fidelity and the accuracy of the results. In general, the accuracy of a model increases as the fidelity and development time associated with the model increase. In many cases full optimization of a defensive architecture is not possible due to time constraints. Thus, a wise selection of optimization tools must be made to meet a mission critical timeline. A time based analysis process, from identifying the inputs to calculating the measures of effectiveness is the output of this project.


Title : Transport and Traveler Information Systems
Authors: Jim Hunt and Gary Shenk.

Abstract : Providing accurate, real-time traveler information is viewed by many public transportation agencies as a promising strategy for reducing traffic congestion and improving the quality and efficiency of travel for the public. Properly delivered information such as system speeds, incidents (such as accidents or stalled vehicles), construction activity, weather conditions, and traveler services (e.g. food and lodging) can be of great value to travelers. In particular, commercial vehicle operators, other business travelers, and emergency response personnel can utilize this information to adjust routes, itineraries, and departure times to minimize travel times and vehicle operating costs.

Much of the information noted above is currently collected by various government agencies to satisfy their specific functional needs. For example, most State Department's of Transportation collect traffic sensor and surveillance data to operate its roadway network, adjust traffic signal timing, and respond to incidents. However, rarely is the information packaged in a value added form so it could be utilized by travelers. Synthesizing the myriad of data that is collected and delivering it to travelers in a useful form is a role better suited to the private sector. Private sector entities could also be involved in data collection activities (such as telecommunications providers tracking cell phone usage on roadways) and data dissemination mechanisms like cable TV. Furthermore, the advertising potential associated with travel information delivery interfaces might appeal to the private sector. For these reasons, travel information services lend themselves to public-private partnership arrangements.

This project will apply a systems approach to depict the functional architecture of a private sector Traveler Information Service Provider. The architecture will identify the key systems interfaces associated with data collection, processing, and dissemination. The project will also explore the market forces and cost models associated with such a venture and an analysis will be performed determine how profits might be affected by alternative information dissemination methods.


Title : Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS)
Authors: Kim Becker and Dave MacDonnell

Abstract : This project will describe the system required to schedule, operate, and maintain the TDRSS network. The system relays user satellite information and science data to several missions throughout the country. A tremendous amount of infrastructure is required to manage this system.


Title : Requirements Development in Scenario Modeling for Civil Engineering Systems
Author: Clara Popescu

Abstract : In the past years Requirements Engineering has received a lot of attention from the EE and software development groups. Even though concepts of Requirements Engineering are used by civil engineers, no work has been done to try to automate the process of developing requirements for civil engineering systems. The goal of this project is to propose a methodology of eliciting scenarios and generating requirements for civil engineering systems by following object-oriented design patterns. Since the application area is so extended, one case study will be used first to determine a design pattern, then to test and validate the proposed methodology.


Title : Outbreaks of Food Pathogens
Author: Andrea Lomander

Abstract : Lately there has been an increased demand for healthy, convenience type of foods in the United states. The demand has stimulated sales of fresh produce, for example non-pasteurized fruit juice and milk. These products and the food processing equipment that is used can support the growth of food borne pathogens. Some examples are outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice, bottled water and sprouts, Salmonella in eggs and on vegetables, Cyclospora on fruit and Cryosporidium in drinking water(1), (2). In response to these threats on January 25, 1997, President Clinton announced a new initiative to improve the safety of their nations' food supply. The goal for Food Safety Initiative (FSI) is to reduce the incidence of food borne illness to the greatest extent feasible (3). It is known that bacteria adhere to many of the surfaces involved in the food processing. With time, the bacteria will form a biofilm with different properties compared to the single colonies. A polysaccharide matrix surrounds the biofilm and supports it with nutrients. The matrix may be a reason why biofilms often are more resistant to sanitizing compounds than planktonic (free-living) bacteria. Further, the bacteria from the biofilm may be a source of contamination in food processing environments (4).

To view the problems the food industry is facing from a Systems Engineering view point has not been reviewed elsewhere. The purpose with this project is therefore to develop a systems profile for a food processing industry that deals with outbreaks of food pathogens, mainly the pathogen E. coli O157:H7, to trace the source of the outbreak, to analyze and characterize the pathogens, and to develop a program in order to prevent new outbreaks of this and other pathogens. Briefly, the system consists of following parts: Food Processing Industry --- Biofilm formation--Research Performed to Prevent the Biofilm Formation.

  1. Warburton, D. W., Austin, J. W, Harrison, B. H, Sanders G.: J. Food Protection 61, 948-52, 1998
  2. Kluger, J.: Time magazine 57-62 1998.
  3. Food Safety from Farm to Table; A National Food Safety Initiative Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Health and Human Services, United states Department of Agriculture, May 1997
  4. Kumar, C., Anand, S.: Significance of Microbial Biofilms in Food Industry: a review. Int. J of Food Microbiology 42, 9-27, 1998


Title : Satellite Constellation Operations System Profile
Authors: Hank Tseu and Carlos J. Monroy

Abstract : This project would cover the design and operation of a ground system capable of operating multiple satellites including tracking each satellite's desired and actual state for various telemetry. It would cover in detail one or more of the following components:


Title : Marine Navigation Systems in Narrow Channels
Authors: Vasilios Lagakos and Evangelos Kaisar

Abstract : In the 20th century we have increase in trade transportation and as a result there is more congestion in Ports and in narrow channels. One way of decreasing congestion is to integrate tecnological advances such as : GPS, VT-MIS, GMDSS, etc, in the marine industry. This technology can help to reduce queing delay, reduce the cost, and improve safety. It is also posssible we will use a trade-off analysis and optimization technics to analyze the different performance criteria and requirements.


Title : A System Level Approach to the Development of a Manufacturing Test Strategy for Electronic Products
Author: Mark Ferguson

Abstract : In the manufacturing environment, senior managers, as well as established test personnel, rarely recognize the various requirements of selecting an optimum product-test strategy. The importance of many of the criteria and various aspects involved in a well thought out and planned test approach are often minimized or overlooked all together.

In formulating a test strategy most test professionals start by evaluating traditional and nontraditional techniques, such as manufacturing defects-analysis, in-circuit, functional, and system test. Although selecting test methods is an important activity, beginning with this step is jumping the gun. Constructing a strategy requires considering many other factors as well, including the product line under test, the facility resources, capabilities of test personnel, company and management philosophies, budgets, and existing test strategies (if any). In addition, many of these criteria must be evaluated from the perspective of both present and future requirements as the technologies, both of product and test, evolve.

This paper will utilize a systems engineering approach to present a systems profile of a generalized test requirements and strategy development process. This profile will address issues such as inter-regime communication, optimization of design procedures/practices, and trade-off analysis of performance and project costs.


Title : Agile Virtual Enterprises
Authors: Mandar Chincholkar and Vidit Mathur

Abstract : The aim of such an enterprise is to develop a system in which a number of participants sitting at remote locations come together to create a virtual manufacturing environment. Such an environment would attempt to enable the enterprise to develop, manufacture and deliver the product faster and at a lower cost.


Title : Systems Engineering in the MEMS industry
Authors: Ujval Alva and Arun Chaudhary

Abstract : MicroElectroMechanical Systems, or MEMS, are integrated micro devices or systems combining electrical and mechanical components. They are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) batch processing techniques and can range in size from micrometers to millimeters. These systems can sense, control and actuate on the micro scale, and function individually or in arrays to generate effects on the macro scale. We shall research

  1. The basic framework of a MEMS industry and the typical organization structure in such an industry;
  2. The various processes involved in manufacturing MEMS products;
  3. The various systems in a MEMS industry and the interaction between these systems;
  4. We shall measure the productivity of the organization involved in MEMS;
  5. We shall take a sample optimization problem in MEMS and try to determine the various trade-offs.


Title : Systems Approach to Design & Control of Space Satellite for Vegetation Purposes
Authors: Tarun Luthra and Rahul Khatod

Abstract : The Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) is the first selected mission of the NASA Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. VCL is scheduled for launch in mid-2000 on board an Athena launch vehicle. The VCL mission will be conducted by means of a small satellite carrying the MBLA instrument in a 400 km orbit of 670 inclination with a two-year nominal lifetime. The principal goal of the mission is characterization of:

The two main science objectives are:

Command and control of the spacecraft during operation, as well as data processing will take place at the University of Maryland. Distribution and archiving of VCL data products will be performed by the EROS Data Center. This project mainly concentrates on the VCC (VCL control center).


Title : Implementing An Advanced Technology (CTAS) In Air Traffic Control Industry.
Authors: Vikram Malhi and Tony Wang

Abstract : The primary objective of air traffic control is to maintain safe separation between aircraft -- both vertically (in altitude) and horizontally (in latitude and longitude). This has been done traditionally through the use of ground controllers in communication with pilots of properly equipped aircraft. Ground control is responsible for ascertaining and predicting the positions of all aircraft within controlled airspace. Pilots adhere to certain rules of the air and follow advice of ground control. Pilots navigate between specific origins and destinations along known and charted airways that likewise have relied traditionally on the use of ground-base devices like radio beacons to indicate position and heading to pilots. A prerequisite for entering controlled airspace is that a valid flight plan has been filed with the FAA in advance for the flight, indicating intended flight times, locations, headings, routes, waypoints, and other information.

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) sets rules for flight in controlled airspace and standards for maintenance of separation. Due to the fast growing demand for air traffic, enhancing safety and reducing delays have become a major issue to National Airspace System (NAS), which is operated by FAA.

CTAS stands for Center TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Controls) Automation System. It is designed to help air traffic controllers manage increasingly complex air traffic flows at large airports. The CTAS tools increase controllers' efficiency, and benefit air travelers by reducing delays and increasing safety. CTAS applications provide sequencing for aircraft in transition from en route to terminal airspace and during final approach at busy airports.

The goal of this project is to develop a systems engineering profile of this new technology, and to perform a tradeoff analysis in areas of cost, performance, manpower, risk and effectiveness, as related to total life cycle design, to validate the need of CTAS in Air Traffic Control Industry.


Title : Implementation and Integration of Business Systems
Authors: Paul Lee and Aubrey Wiggins

Abstract : Business systems are essential tools in managing a company's enterprise resource planning (ERP). Organizations employ fully functional business systems in cyclical stages in an effort to avoid system obsolescence. Business sytems such as Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing (SAP) and Western Data Systems (WDS) are useful in streamlining business processes, minimizing costs, and increasing an organizations competitive edge. A requirements assessment is necessary when attempting to implement a business system. An understanding of the requirements is achievable through mapping the process flow of the business system with respect to the actual process flow of the business. After the system is programmed based on the requirements, converting data, testing of the system, and validating the converted data, must ensue during the implementation process. The implementation and integration of a business system encompass all of the elements from developing a corporate structure flow in order to understand the requirements (pre-system development) to monitoring and improving the busines system after it has been developed (post-system development).


Title : A Systems Engineering Approach to Cab Design Optimization
Authors: Lance Anderson and Christine Anderson

Abstract : This project will focus on the cab frame design of a standard industrial hydraulic crane, since the cab can be used as a major selling point of the machine. The cab frame is defined as the outer shell that encloses the seat, console, controls, ..etc. Appearance has a huge influence on the design of the cab frame. The cab frame must appear flawless as well as structurally sound. Functionality often dictates the appearance of the cab frame design; therefore, the engineer must pay equal attention to the design of both aspects of the structure. In conjunction with these design considerations, the engineer must also consider the manufacturability of the cab frame in order to maintain the integrity of the design. A few of the most common processes for cab frame manufacturing are welding and using mechanical fasteners. Some of the most recent processes for cab frame manufacturing include the use of molded fiberglass and structural acrylic adhesives.

This project will involve a trade-off analysis of those different processes to optimize the design from marketing, engineering, and manufacturing point of views.


Title : Internet Security and Data Encryption Systems
Author: Manav Kher and Amit Jain

Abstract : This project will study the current state of security of the Internet and systems available for safe transportation of data over the web. We will try to study and analyze

  1. The existing transaction systems.
  2. Encryption systems currently available and future technology under development.
  3. Cryptology, its history and its importance to Encryption systems and net security.
  4. Are faster processors a security threat?
  5. Points of vulnerability of data.
  6. Points of Application of security techniques on a network.
  7. Problems with the curent security systems.
  8. Organizational aspect of Internet Security.

We will also discuss the types of eCommerce being conducted ,security concers of each type.A real life case study on a Internet company (doing eEcommerce),security system being deployed by the concern,failure rate etc.


Title : Selection of an Optimal Design Layout for a facility
Author: Ashish Jakhete

Abstract : XYZ company is a leader in providing telecommunication test products. With the rapid change in technology and the growth of the company, the present location is unable to meet the company demands. The company is planning to move into a new facility that will help ease some of the space crunch and give more room for future expansion as well. The main goal is to design a layout that will satify key elements like, Product life cycle, material flow, the throughput of units/day, return on investment. Also the management expects flexibility in terms of accomodating new products and phasing out old ones.

For this a systems engineering approach (using AHP; weighted point method and other tools) is proposed that will take some of these elements and try to analyse and design a optimal layout that will satisfy the most important requirements and constraints.


Title : A holistic view of a Communication System using Groupware Software
Author: Farooq Ahmed and Momodu Fofana

Abstract : The project shall address the following issues:

  1. Level and amount of administration required to successfully manage groupware systems;
  2. Systems in place that plan, implement, maintain and manage a groupware system and also how the various systems are evolving;
  3. How the systems interface to successfully manage e-mailing services.
  4. Highlights of the resources utilized to manage the systems and how the system is partitioned into manageable modules.
  5. How the system is fine tuned to accommodate the needs of the physically disabled.
  6. Projections for real-time groupware systems and the use of intelligent systems.
  7. Parameters that assure compatibility of physical, functional and program interfaces in such a way that it optimizes the final product of the total system.
  8. The system security.


Title : Technology and System Architectures for Locating Wireless Phones
Author: Sadhana Kant

Abstract : Many wireless users buy their phones primarily for safety as they can use these phones in event of an emergency or distress, irrespective of where they are i.e., away from home or a public booth. Ironically enough, unlike their wireline counterparts, location of wireless phones (which is all the more important because of their mobility) cannot be accurately determined. Based on statistics available from Public Safety Providers many lives are lost each year because rescuers (Police, Firemen, Paramedics, etc.) get to an accident too late since they did not have access to the 911 caller's location.

On another front, with advances in wireless technology wireless phones are starting to become more than just voice communication devices. They are slowly assuming roles of information dissemination devices as well. Information providers are quickly realizing the importance of delivering personalized and location-specific information. Location specific information can only be delivered to a wireless phone/device if the network is aware of the location of the phone.

Sensing the usefulness (both social and commercial) of knowing the location of a wireless phone, the aim of this project is to present a systems engineering profile for identifying a technology and the associated system architecture to determine the location of a wireless phone.


Title : Public Transportation Systems for Large-Scale Metropoliton Areas
Author: Corey Fritz

Abstract : In any densely populated area of the world that also includes a large amount of industry, a well thought out, adaptable, and easy-to-use public transportation system that provides an alternative to automotive travel should be a must. This alternative mode of transportation helps to cut down on traffic flow on the area's roadways, which leads to less headaches for the travelers who have no other option but to drive a car; and also, by virtue of decreasing the number of cars on the roadways, this system lessens the amount of emissions polluting the local atmosphere. This system should also be easy to use so that commuters have a good experience and are not intimidated by some complicated process which may lead them to take a car rather than deal with the hassle of public transportation. A good public transportation system should be well thought out to properly deal with the human traffic requirements of the metropolitan area in as efficient a manner as possible; this will also help in decreasing the headaches of the commuter, making the system more desirable to use. And finally, a large-scale transportation system should be adaptable in order to deal with changing population flow without having to scrap the existing system and start over from scratch.

This project will involve a case study of the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (specifically the Metro train and bus systems) to determine what is involved in the planning and implementation of such a large-scale public transportation system. Combining this case study with some principles from systems engineering, the focus of this project is to come up with fresh ideas for creating new public transportation systems and improving existing ones.


Title : Systems Engineering Approach applied to the Design of a Pasteurization System for Juices
Author: Jose A. Faria

Abstract : Pasteurization is defined as the process of heating a liquid to certain temperature and hold it for a period of time, then cool down the liquid again normally to ambient temperatures. Depending on the temperature and on the hold time, different of microorganisms present in the beverage will die or at least become inactive.

Such process was typically performed after the liquid was poured in the bottle, using hot water sprays as the bottles where conveyed inside a machine. Today the liquid is pasteurized before filled into the bottles using heat exchangers to heat the product. This method has been proven to be cost effective due to the reduce in energy and floor space required.

The process is not complicated it is just delicate. The temperature must be hold within a very tight range, otherwise the product may not be properly pasteurized, or may be overheated. The time should be also maintain within certain range in order to insure an effective pasteurization without damaging the characteristics of the beverage such as flavor and odor.

The design of a pasteurization process involves calculations of heat transfer, pipe diameter, pressure drop and temperature changes.

The focus of this project will be apply the methods developed in systems engineering to the different stages of the design. Including the application of trade off analysis to compare between available units, the application of computerized programs that will automate the repetitive calculations, and the use of Web pages to simulate the operator interface for the system, among others.

The beverage industry is regulated by several standards. In the dairy industry the 3A standard is famous. For juices the standards 3A is used as a guideline more than a absolute code to follow. The comply with 3A standard is a factor that fight cost in the trade off analysis.


Title : A Systems Approach to Electronic Packaging
Authors: Phanikumar Bhamidipati and Venkata Prasad Veluru

Abstract : The Electronic Packaging industry has grown in importance as its products become smaller and more intricate. The manufacturing processes for these products have become more refined and difficult due to which the costs have increased. The systems profile for a specific EP product deals with the analysis of manufacturing processes and the different modes of failure to improve reliability and optimize on associated costs.


Title : VIRGINIA Class Submarine Hydraulic System Design
Author: Jerome Posatko and Robert Brown

Abstract : This profile will present and analyze the design system implemented to develop the hydraulic system on the VIRGINIA Class Submarine currently being designed by the US Navy.

The profile will also address the hydraulic system's interaction with associated components, including:

  1. Steering and Diving
  2. Torpedo Tubes
  3. External Hydraulic Systems
  4. Weapons handling

In addition, there are systems on board used to control the hydraulic System from the Ship Control Station (SCS), such as system monitoring hardware and control software. This control system, along with the manual (remote) operation will also be addressed in the profile.


Title : How Resources Influence Math Education Performance
Authors: Jeffrey L. Coleman and Troy Jeffers

Abstract : Using various assessment techniques and existing educational organizational models from nationwide studies, the purpose is to implement a hybrid educational organizational model with the optimized characteristics for effective allocation of resources to help high school students excel in math education. A comparison between the average public high school in Prince George's County, Maryland versus the average public high school in Montgomery County, Maryland will be used as a case study to validate the feasibility of the hybrid model. In addition, the reasons behind the successes and/or failures in all areas of the students' learning process will be addressed.

Some examples of the resources that are allocated (in which the process of allocation includes the financing for, as well as, the distribution of,the actual resources) that will be assessed in comparison to the students' performance on standardized tests, such as the ACT, HSPT (High School Proficiency Test), and SAT are the following:

Developed in September 1999 by Mark Austin
Copyright © 1999, Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland