Faculty Directory

Rubloff, Gary

Rubloff, Gary

Distinguished University Professor
Minta Martin Professor of Engineering
Director, Nanostructures for Electrical Energy Storage
Fellow, APS
Fellow, AVS
Materials Science and Engineering
The Institute for Systems Research
Institute for Research in Electronics & Applied Physics
Maryland Energy Innovation Institute
Electrical and Computer Engineering
1134 Jeong H. Kim Engineering Building


  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Physics, Brown University, 1971-73
  • Ph.D., Physics, University of Chicago, 1971
  • M.S., Physics, University of Chicago, 1967
  • B.A., Physics, Dartmouth College, 1966


Dr. Rubloff has published more than 200 papers, holds 21 patents and holds 6 IBM Invention Achievement Awards. He won the AVS Gaede-Langmuir Prize in 2000 "for inventive application of surface science and vacuum technology to the semiconductor industry, and for fostering an effective bridge between AVS research and manufacturing." This award was established 1977 to recognize and encourage outstanding discoveries and inventions in the sciences and technologies of interest to the AVS. He is a Fellow of APS and AVS. His research has included solid state physics, surface physics and chemistry, interfaces, semiconductor materials and processing science and technology, process diagnostics and modeling, manufacturing science, combinatorial materials science, biomaterials and bioMEMS. His semiconductor process research has emphasized the elucidation of chemical and physical mechanisms involved in surface cleaning, thermal oxidation, chemical vapor deposition, and plasma etching, and in pursing these directions he pioneered the exploitation of ultrahigh vacuum process environments and their integration with in-situ surface and interface diagnostics.

Dr. Rubloff received his B.A. in Physics magna cum laude from Dartmouth College in 1966, his M.S. in 1967 and his Ph.D. in 1971 in Physics from the University of Chicago. He held a postdoctoral position in Physics at Brown University from 1971 to 1973. In 1973 he joined IBM Research, Yorktown Heights, NY, as a Research Staff Member in the Physical Sciences Department, were he worked on surface and interface science. In 1984-85 he served as Technical Assistant to the IBM Research Vice-President for Logic and Memory, and from 1985 to 1991 he continued his research while serving in several capacities as Manager of exploratory materials and processing in the Silicon Technology Department. From 1992-1993 he was Manager of Thin Film Process Modeling in the Manufacturing Research Department. From 1992 to 1997 he was also Professor Adjunct in Electrical Engineering at Yale University.

He joined academia in 1993 as Associate Director of the NSF Engineering Research Center for Advanced Electronic Materials Processing and Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at North Carolina State University, focusing on real-time process sensing, simulation, optimization, and control.

In 1996 he joined the University of Maryland as Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research. He served as Director of the Institute from 1996 to 2001. In 2004 he was named Minta Martin Professor of Engineering and assumed the position of founding Director of the Maryland NanoCenter. He is also an affiliate faculty member of the the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP), the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the Fischell Department of Bioengineering, and the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering.

Dr. Rubloff was the founding Chairman of the AVS Manufacturing Science and Technology Group from 1992-1997 and continues to serve on its Executive Committee. He has been a member of the Metrology Technical Working Group for the SIA's National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors since its inception in 1994. He has been active in professional society work, including the Board of Directors of the AVS, Executive Committees of the AVS Electronic Materials and Processing Division, the APS Materials Physics Division, and the Editorial Board of the Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. He has long been active in civic affairs, included 11 years service as an elected Member, Vice-President, and President of a local Board of Education in New York State.

Prior to joining the faculty of the A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland, Professor Rubloff served as the associate director of North Carolina State University's NSF Engineering Research Center for Advanced Electronic Materials Processing and as an adjunct professor of electrical engineering at Yale University. Before pursuing a career in academia, he served for 20 years in a variety of research and management positions at IBM's Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y.

Professor Rubloff is a past director of the Institute for Systems Research, of which he remains an active member.


  • AVS Gaede-Langmuir Prize, 2000 “for the inventive application of surface science and vacuum technology to the semiconductor industry, and for fostering an effective bridge between AVS research and manufacturing”. This award is presented biennially “to recognize and encourage outstanding discoveries and inventions in the sciences and technologies of interest to the American Vacuum Society."
  • Fellow of the American Physical Society (1986)
  • Fellow of AVS (formerly American Vacuum Society) (1993)
  • Six IBM Invention Achievement Awards
  • IBM Research Division Award for MCP Chromium Metallurgy, 1986


  • APS 
  • AVS
  • IEEE
  • MRS

Professor Rubloff has been very active in industry and consortium activities, consulting, professional societies, government agency activities (including the DOE and NSF), and in service to the University of Maryland through advising, teaching, and his participation in department, college and university-level committees. He has also served on the editorial boards of a variety of publications, and on professional conference program committees. Please see Professor Rubloff's C.V. (PDF) for a complete list of his academic, industrial, government and community service activities.

Orcid: 0000-0002-1901-3982, Google Scholar

  • Multifunctional nanostructures for energy storage and capture
  • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, mechanisms, and technology
  • Nanoscale devices for quantum computing

For detailed information about these projects, please visit Professor Rubloff's website.

Nanostructures and Energy Applications
  • Nanostructures for Energy Devices
  • Characterization of multilayer structures in nanopores
  • AAO-ALD nanodevices and energy systems
Electronic Materials and Processes
  • Atomic layer deposition (ALD)
  • ALD-based Josephson junctions for quantum computing
  • Programmable and combinatorial chemical vapor deposition
  • Semiconductor materials, processing, and characterization
  • Sensing and advanced process control for widegap semiconductor growth
  • Real-time chemical process sensing for metrology and advanced process control
  • Simulation and optimization in dynamic process systems

Professor Rubloff currently teaches or has taught the following courses:

  • ENMA 465: Microprocessing of Materials (also offered as ENMA 489B)
  • ENMA 490: Materials Design: Capstone Design Course
  • ENMA 659S: Systems Design for Microelectronics Manufacturing Processes (also offered as "Materials and Processes for Microelectronics")

Please visit Professor Rubloff's web site to learn more about his industry short courses and courses he has taught for the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.


Professor Rubloff has published over 300 peer-reviewed papers. For a complete list of publications, please visit his web site

  • “Integration of Diverse Biological Materials in Micro/Nano Devices”, Reza Ghodssi, Peter Dykstra, Mariana Meyer, Stephan Koev, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, Xiaolong Luo, Gary Rubloff, William Bentley, Gregory Payne, James Culver, Advanced Materials and Technologies for Micro/Nano-Devices, Sensors and Actuators, NATO Science for Peace and Security Series B: Physics and Biophysics. ISBN 978-90-481-3805-0. Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2010, p. 275; DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-3807-4_22
  • “Structural, electrical, and optical properties of atomic layer deposition Al-doped ZnO films”, Parag Banerjee, Won-Jae Lee, Ki Ryeol Bae, Sang Bok Lee, and Gary W. Rubloff, J.Appl. Phys. 108 (4), 043504 (17 Aug 2010), DOI: 10.1063/1.3466987. 
  • “Chitosan: An Integrative Biomaterial for Lab-on-a-chip Devices”, S. T. Koev, P. H. Dykstra, X. Luo, G.W. Rubloff, W.E. Bentley, G.F. Payne, and R. Ghodssi, Lab on a Chip 10, 3026-3042 (2010), DOI: 10.1039/C0LC00047G.
  • “Biofabrication to build the biology-device interface”, Yi Liu, Eunkyoung Kim, Reza Ghodssi, Gary W. Rubloff, James N. Culver, William E. Bentley, and Gregory F. Payne, Biofabrication 2, 1-21, 022002, DOI: 10.1088/1758-5082/2/2/022002.
  • “Profile evolution for conformal atomic layer deposition over nanotopography”, Erin R. Cleveland, Parag Banerjee, Israel Perez, Sang Bok Lee, and Gary W. Rubloff, ACS Nano (14 Jul 2010), DOI: 10.1021/nn1009984
  • “In situ quantitative visualization and characterization of chitosan electrodeposition with paired sidewall electrodes”, Yi Cheng, Xiaolong Luo, Jordan Betz, Susan Buckhout-White, Omar Bekdash, Gregory F. Payne, William E. Bentley, and Gary W. Rubloff, Soft Matter 6, 3177-3183 (2010), DOI:10.1039/C0SM00124D.
  • “Chitosan to electroaddress biological components in lab-on-a-chip devices”, Y. Liu, X.-W. Shi, E. Kim, L. M. Robinson, C. K. Nye, R. Ghodssi, G. W. Rubloff, W. E. Bentley, and G. F. Payne, Carbohydrate Polymers (2010); DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.03.038.
  • “In-Film Bioprocessing and Immunoanalysis with Electroaddressable Stimuli-Responsive Polysaccharides”, Xiaohua Yang, Eunkyoung Kim, Yi Liu, Xiao-Wen Shi, Gary W. Rubloff, Reza Ghodssi, William E. Bentley, Zeev Pancer, and Gregory F. Payne, Adv. Functional Mat. 20, 1645-1652 (2010), DOI: 10.1002/adfm.200902092
  • “Biological nanofactories facilitate spatially-selective capture and manipulation of quorum sensing bacteria in a bioMEMS device”, Rohan Fernandes, Xiaolong Luo, Chen-Yu Tsao, Reza Ghodssi, Gary W. Rubloff, and William E. Bentley, Lab on Chip 10, 1128-1134 (2010), DOI: 10.1039/b926846d
  • “ALD-based Metal-insulator-metal (MIM) Nanocapacitors for Energy Storage", Parag Banerjee, Israel Perez, Laurent Henn-Lecordier, Sang Bok Lee,and Gary Rubloff, ECS Transactions 25 (4), 345-353 (2009).

UMD Start-Up Ionic Devices Wins Microbattery Design Prize

One of Eight Awarded by US Department of Energy

Congratulations May 2023 ISR graduates!

Here's a list of May graduates with ISR ties---at all degree levels.

Rubloff and colleagues publish work on improving solid-state battery interface performance

New combination of techniques can correlate chemical and electronic properties.

Ten Maryland MSE Faculty Members Ranked in Top 2% of World Scientists

Elsevier releases updated science-wide database

ISR-affiliated graduates, December 2022

ISR congratulates these students, all advised by ISR faculty!

Can LPGS solid-state battery conductor degradation be mitigated?

New study by Rubloff team in Materials Advances shows coatings could lead to better stability.

Congratulations ISR Spring 2022 graduates!

We congratulate graduates at all levels who have ISR advisors!

Alum develops bioelectric effect toothbrush

Young Wook Kim's TROMATZ toothbrush improves mouth and gum health.

UMD Makes U.S. DOE Solar District Cup Finals

The Solar District Cup challenges multidisciplinary student teams to design and model optimized distributed energy systems for a campus or urban district.

UMD Research Team Advances the Battery Revolution

Solid state energy storage research receives $2.25M in DOE funding.

Thin film platforms advance solid-state energy storage

Gary Rubloff is the PI for this 3-year, $2.5M DOE project.

Bill Fagan named UMD Distinguished University Professor

Fagan is the sixth ISR faculty member to receive the honor.

Advance made towards next-generation rechargable batteries

Researchers demonstrate ALD process for NaPON, a thin-film solid-state electrolyte for sodium-ion batteries.

Spurring research group creativity in the time of COVID-19

Student-faculty teams that write review articles for journals reap multiple benefits.

UMD Faculty Members to Lead U.S. Side of $18.4M U.S.-Israel Energy Center Project

Project will develop lithium and sodium metal solid-state-batteries for advanced energy storage applications.

MEI2 leads U.S. side of $18.4M U.S.-Israel Energy Center focused on energy storage

Project will develop Lithium and Sodium metal solid state batteries for advanced energy storage applications.

Rubloff is PI for 'Customized Lithium Batteries for Mission Applications'

The 18-month DoE project will focus on the effects of ALD anode protection layers in lithium batteries.

Emily Hitz Named by Nature as One of Five Early Career Researchers in Materials Science

Hitz is an MSE Ph.D. student, advised by Liangbing Hu, conducting research on solid-state batteries.

Company Co-Founded by Sergio Baron Delivers Ultra-Thin, Custom Shape Lithium Batteries

CEO and Co-Founder Baron (M.S. '12) has led the development of ultrathin lithium battery technology for sleek and flexible medical devices, IoT and wearable devices.

Ghodssi gives distinguished lecture on devices for gastrointestinal health at EPFL in Switzerland

Trip also included visits to the Wyss Center and Imperial College London.

A New Dimension for Batteries

Nanostructured battery is safe, manufacturing-compatible, and delivers much higher power at high energy

ISR remembers George Reynolds

The longtime Northrop Grumman friend of ISR has passed away at age 73.

Gary Rubloff keynote speaker at IEEE nanotechnology conference

Topic: “From Nanostructures to Mesoscale Architectures: Electrochemical Storage for Smart Things.”

Prof. Sang Bok Lee appointed director of Maryland NanoCenter

UMD chemist will direct two labs on nanoscale fabrication and characterization

EFRC NEES-2 meeting poster contest winners

Accomplishments meeting announces poster awards

UMD Researchers Focus Energy on Current Collector Improvements

Research paper published in Advanced Energy Materials.

New microsystems detect, treat bacterial biofilms that cause post-operative infections

'Flexible impedance sensor' can fit inside urinary catheters, monitor and treat biofilms.

Research Review: Combating biofilms with microsystem devices

New microsystems detect, treat bacterial biofilms—the source of many post-operative infections; latest device can sense and treat biofilm inside urinary catheters.

Decade of TMV research leads to never-before-seen microsystems for energy storage, biosensors and self-sustaining systems

Long-term Ghodssi-Culver partnership has used the Tobacco mosaic virus as a biological nanoscaffold for groundbreaking devices.

Alexander Pearse wins Dean's Doctoral Research Award

Advised by Gary Rubloff, his research is titled, "Development of Vapor-Phase Deposited Three Dimensional All-Solid-State Batteries."

Congratulations ISR graduates!

These new alumni graduated from the University of Maryland in December 2016.

NanoCenter thanks departing co-founder

High-tech fabrication technique produces departure gift

Four Clark School Professors Named Distinguished University Professor

In 2016, four of the 10 Distinguished University Professors named by the University of Maryland are Clark School professors.

Gary Rubloff named Distinguished University Professor

Rubloff receives highest academic honor conferred by the University of Maryland.

Rubloff, Ghodssi to speak at TechConnect World Innovation Conference and Expo

The event is the largest global innovation conference in physical and life sciences.

Rubloff Discusses UMD Energy Storage Center and Energy Science Hot Topics

UMD prof and center director on Electrochemical Society meeting podcast

Gary Rubloff to receive Senior Faculty Outstanding Research Award

Clark School honor celebrates strong and influential research.

Subramanian and Wheeler win 2015 ISR awards

Graduate student and staff member honored at annual ceremony.

Mesoscale Science Research Highlighted on Materials Journal Cover

Rubloff and Lee show new direction in electrical energy storage

New Battery Demonstrates “Sweet Spot” of Electrolyte Thickness and Composition

Atom-scale synthesis makes highly conductive LiPON for solid-state battery

Reza Ghodssi named AVS Fellow

Citation reads: "For outstanding leadership in microsystems technology achieved by combining knowledge of materials and processing, innovative device concepts, and diverse applications."

Thin coatings controlled at atomic scale protect high performance lithium anodes

Anodes with layer of alumina resist corrosion and cycle well

Members of NEES Gather for 2015 Spring Accomplishment Meeting

Poster session, in-depth discussions, presentations.... and hiking

Rubloff, Wu win UMD Invention of the Year Awards

Inventions selected for potential impact on science, society, and the open market.

Rubloff One of 9 Finalists for UMD Invention of the Year

Office of Technology Commercialization to announce winners at the Celebration of Innovation and Partnerships, April 29.

UMD To Celebrate Innovations and Partnerships April 29

Nine nominees for Invention of the Year to be recognized at annual event

A Billion Holes Can Make a Battery

Battery inside a nanopore has commercial potential

UMD Researchers Bridge Gap between Microelectronics, Biological Systems

“Electronic modulation of biochemical signal generation” published in Nature Nanotechnology

Department of Energy renews NEES EFRC for four years

The center develops highly ordered nanostructures that offer a unique way of looking at the science of energy storage.

Rubloff, Ghodssi featured in JVST-A special issue

The Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A is celebrating the 60th anniversary of the American Vacuum Society.

NSF Grants for Graphene Research Awarded to Hu, Rubloff

Research at the nano-scale nets university over half-million dollars in funding

Nano ‘Beads on a String’ Could Advance Battery Technology

Pulsing with lithium, tiny silicon beads on a nanotube hold promise for better batteries

Rubloff Co-Authors Major DoE Report on Emerging Energy Technologies

Publication focuses on opportunities in mesoscale science.

Award Funds Development of Solid-State, High Power Lithium-Air Battery

Schroeder named John and Maureen Hendricks Energy Research Fellow.

Six ISR grad students in Clark School Future Faculty Program

Program helps students prepare for academic careers in top-50 engineering schools.

Preventing Costly, Life-Threatening Catheter Infections

Deutsch Foundation-sponsored Clark School research offers multi-pronged attack on major medical problem.

Bacteria Programmed to Re-Create UMD Logo

Feat part of larger body of Clark School research into preventing infections.

Profile of alumnus Parag Banerjee

Former student of Gary Rubloff now on faculty at Washington University in St. Louis.

Gregorczyk Wins Second L-3 Fellowship

Award provides stipend, travel credit, tuition waiver, and discretionary funds.

Clark School researchers figure prominently in atomic layer deposition story

Chemical & Engineering News highlights expansion of the coating technology.

Controlling chemistry improves potential of carbon nanotubes

Nanotechnology breakthrough could lead to better batteries, more sensitive biosensors.

International partnership agreement being finalized

International relationship will include research and education components.

Rubloff quoted in story about DOE Energy Frontiers Research Centers

Rubloff says science should be "more use-inspired."

"Pocket Change Spectroscopy" Improves Detection of Toxins, Explosives

Betz, Rubloff Highlighted in Chemical & Engineering News.

ISR's busy November: NSF site visit, 25th anniversary dinner, SAC meeting

The Institute for Systems Research held three major events from Nov. 17–19.

Materials Scientists, Conservators Join Forces to Preserve Silver Artifacts and Art

Team developing nanometers-thick, protective coatings using atomic layer deposition.

Galloway, Gregorczyk, Gremillion awarded L-3 Graduate Research Fellowships

Fellowships support Ph.D. candidates working in specific research areas.

Work by grad student Parag Banerjee cited in MRS Bulletin

Paper by student of Gary Rubloff originally appeared in ACS Nano.

Clark School honors Rajkowski, Beyaz, Banerjee for student research

Students score in Dean's Student Research Award Competition.

Espy-Wilson, Rubloff win 'Invention of the Year' awards

Inventions could improve speech comprehension in noisy environments, battery capacity.

Reza Ghodssi guest edits special issue of IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

'Special Proceeding' issue focuses on energy harvesting.

Rubloff Team Wins $2.8M Army Grant

Funds support design of nano-tech coherent dielectric barriers for quantum computing.

Former Director Eyad Abed honored at ISR reception

Abed is now a dean at United Arab Emirates University.

Clark School hosts PowerMEMS 2009 attendees for luncheon, lab tours

Six laboratories showcased in special tours.

Rubloff Group Research Selected for Highlights in Chemical Technology.

Paper covers advances in lab-on-a-chip technology.

Mariano Anderle visits ISR from Province of Trento, Italy

Longtime friend of ISR is exploring new collaborations and partnerships.

Student research: Israel Perez

Student of Gary Rubloff is discovering how nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide can be used as a platform for energy storage.

UMERC/Nanocenter Team Named "Energy Frontier" Center

DOE to award $14M for nanotech storage technology crucial to renewable energy success.

Dean Berlin places second in research competition

Berlin is a graduate student of Professor Gary Rubloff.

Parag Banerjee Wins Presidential Student Award

Microscopy Society of America honors MSE grad student for nanotube crystallization paper.

NanoCenter Improves Energy Storage Options

Maryland NanoCenter researchers create new device to store electrical energy.

Student research: Xiaolong Luo

Student of Gary Rubloff conducts 'lab-on-a-chip' microsystem research.

Ghodssi, Rubloff receive bioMEMS patent

U.S. patent 7,375,404 is awarded for fabrication and integration of polymeric bioMEMS.

Vorontsov, Koev, Wei and McKinney win at ISR awards ceremony

Quartet honored for outstanding contributions in 2007–2008.

S.K. Gupta and teammates win 2007 'Invention of the Year' physical science award

Gupta also finalist in information science category; Gary Rubloff finalist in physical science.

Subrahmanian wins first ISR Faculty Venture Fair

Online opinion technology impresses venture capitalists at ISR Systems Symposium.

New Advance in Biochip Research

Microfactories for drug research are one step closer to reality.

Ghodssi, Rubloff part of $2 million NSF grant

Cellular and biomolecular engineering research to focus on biofunctionalized devices.

Thermo-Bio-Lithography (ISR IP)

This IP is available to license.

Rubloff, Bentley quoted in Business Gazette's 'nanofactories' story

Nanocenter faculty explain how cell-like factories in the body may prevent and cure illnesses.

NSF Funds Microscopy Facility Upgrades

Kim Building laboratory will benefit from added chemical analysis capabilities.

$1 Million For Nano-Bio Initiative

Deutsch Foudation will fund Clark School bioengineering research on the nanoscale.

Crab Nano-Sensor Detects Dangerous Substances

A material found in crab shells is part of a new sensor system.

NIST and NanoCenter announce partnership

$1.5 million grant will support creation of new nanotechnologies.

NanoCenter featured on PBS's Nightly Business Report

Segment is titled "The Science and Business of Nanotechnology"

University of Maryland ranked No. 1 in nano research and education

Trade publication Small Times cites many factors in ratings

Adomaitis, Rubloff, Kidder own U.S. Patent 6,821,910

December 2004—Trio invented 'Spatially programmable microelectronics process equipment using segmented gas injection showerhead with exhaust gas recirculation.'

W.M. Keck Foundation award establishes new nano lab

Lab funded by Los Angeles foundation will be centerpiece for combinatorial nanosynthesis and multiscale characterization.

W.M. Keck Foundation gives award to M-CINSE, University of Maryland

$750,000 award will establish the Keck Laboratory for Combinatorial Nanosynthesis and Multiscale Characterization.

Rubloff leads new M-CINSE nanotech center

Sept 2004—Former ISR director to help the university contribute to cutting-edge nanoscience

Rubloff, Takeuchi are co-PIs for NSF International Materials Institute

Five-year, $3.5 million grant focuses on combinatorial sciences and materials informatics.

Soon Cho awarded Outstanding Paper Award

Ph.D. student's research "Real-Time, In-Situ Metrology to Drive Real-Time Advanced Process Control."

Rubloff, Takeuchi are PIs for new NSF international materials institute

CoSMIC to develop tools for high-speed discovery and evolution of new materials and processes

Adomaitis and Rubloff win NSF ITR grant

Research to develop a new paradigm for semiconductor manufacturing equipment.

Ghodssi, Rubloff, Smela awarded DURIP for chemical mechanical planarizer

Tool used in semiconductor fabrication, microelectronics, optoelectronics and MEMS

Baras, Berenstein, Ephremides, Liu and Papadopoulos win DoD URI

Research to focus on distributed immune systems for wireless networks information assurance

DeVoe wins DURIP for deep reactive ion etcher

Equipment will be critical component of ISR's MEMS fabrication and nanotechnology capacity

American Physical Society (APS)

  • APS, 1986

American Vacuum Society

  • AVS, 1993